Thursday, May 31, 2012

Common diet mistakes to avoid - 2

In our daily life, we commonly do some diet mistakes and should know how to avoid them. Oranges are rich in vitamin C. We generally, peel the orange and eat the fruit or squeeze the juice. It has a thick bitter rind that is usually discarded. The outermost layer of the rind can be grated and is called as orange zest. The white part of the rind, called the pericarp or albedo and including the pith, is a source of pectin and has nearly the same amount of vitamin C as the flesh. Orange peel has increased vitamin C and fiber. Orange peel can be consumed only if it is grown organically (without using any pesticides). Orange peel contains citral, an aldehyde that antagonizes the action of vitamin A. Therefore, anyone eating orange peels should make certain that their dietary intake of vitamin A is sufficient. Like all citrus fruits, the orange is acidic. Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent. Orange leaves can be boiled to make tea.

Olive oil, being almost pure fat, is dense in calories yet healthy, without adverse health effects. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds. Unsaturated oils, such as olive oil, have a short shelf life and are prone to becoming rancid from oxidation, which will produce toxic byproducts and a bitter taste. Protection of unsaturated oils from heat and light will delay spoilage. Extra virgin olive oil is mostly used as a salad dressing and as an ingredient in salad dressings. It is also used with foods to be eaten cold. If uncompromised by heat, the flavor is stronger. It also can be used for sautéing. Epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil has a protective effect against certain malignant tumors in the breast, prostate, endometrium and digestive tract. Research has revealed that the type rather than the quantity of fat seems to have more implications for cancer incidence.

 Source: Wikipedia

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Communication for everyday life

Communication plays an important role in everyday life. The word “communication” has been derived from the Latin word “communis”. Communication is next to oxygen and water for the existence of the whole society. Through communication, we can share our opinions, thoughts, feelings, etc. This helps in expressing ourselves and making other person understand our point of view. To satisfy the emotional needs of security and recognition, man can express himself and feels relieved of emotional stress through communication. Human relations are strengthened by communication and promote trust, cooperation and harmony among different individuals. One’s success in his profession mainly depends upon his ability to communicate effectively. Communication is disturbed by different communication barriers which may arise due to the sender’s fault or receiver’s problem or disturbance in the channel. Communication can be made effective by implementing certain principles such as willingness of communicators, good planning, clarity in message, selection of suitable media, active listening etc.

Egoism is one of the barriers of communication. The self-centered persons think that their own ideas are more important and others are wrong. Positive emotions such as love, affection and compassion smoothen the flow of communication whereas negative emotions such as hatred, anger, anxiety obstruct the communication process. Therefore, effective communication requires a soothed heart and a silent mind. Clarity in the message is essential to avoid misunderstandings. Purpose of the communication is to be known by both the parties, if the time and conditions permit to make it effective. Improper timing of communication also hinders the process of communication. Inadequate or over-loaded information also fails to serve the purpose of communication. Planning always promises good communication process. For proper planning, sender should be able to collect the required facts and its logical presentation as per the absorption capacity of the receiver. Active listening and attentive reading is important in verbal communication. Timely and suitable feedback is a testimony for effective communication. The response or reaction may be smiles, signs or may be asking question or calling further explanation or affirmation.

When two or more persons understand one another totally, conducive environment of understanding is created in which disputes and differences among individuals or groups are amicably settled. Highly developed communication system is an index of economic advancement of a country. Communication and economic development are mutually dependent elements.
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Saturday, May 19, 2012

Common diet mistakes to avoid -1

In our daily life, we commonly do some diet mistakes and should know how to avoid them. All of us know that eating good food or nutritious food can help us stay healthy. But do you know that the same nutritious food can make us unhealthy if we eat them in wrong proportions, wrong form or excess?  If your answer is no, then you should read about this.
Studies show that eating two or more uncooked egg- whites daily for several months can cause vitamin H (also called vitamin B7 or Biotin) deficiency.
This deficiency leads to hair-loss (include eyelashes and eyebrows), nails problem (i.e. may break, chip or flake easily), dermatitis (in the form of a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose and mouth, and genital area), conjunctivitis, depression, lethargy, hallucination, numbness and tingling, immune dysfunction, bacterial and fungal infections, decreased appetite and growth, etc.

Studies also show that, cooking and crushing tomatoes (canning process) and serving in oil-rich dishes (such as spaghetti sauce and pizza) greatly increases assimilation from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Lycopene is fat-soluble, so the oil is said to help absorption. Lycopene in tomato paste is four times more bio-available than in fresh tomatoes. For this reason, tomato sauce is a preferable source as opposed to raw tomatoes. Processed tomato products such as pasteurized tomato juice, soup, sauce and ketchup contain the highest concentrations of bioavailable lycopene from tomato-based sources. Lycopene is not an essential nutrient for humans, but when absorbed from the stomach, lycopene is transported in the blood by various lipoproteins and accumulates in the liver, adrenal glands, and testes. Because preliminary research has shown an inverse correlation between consumption of tomatoes and cancer risk, lycopene has been considered a potential agent for prevention of some types of cancers. There are also cases of intolerance or allergic reaction to dietary lycopene, which may cause diarrhea, nausea, stomach- pain or cramps, gas, vomiting, and loss of appetite.


Wednesday, May 16, 2012

Nutrition for healthy lifestyle

Nutrition is important for a healthy lifestyle. In order to be happy, we must stay healthy. Food plays an important role in our daily life. There are many varieties in food, but eating nutritious food is the right way to stay healthy.

Food is the fuel of the body which is required for daily nourishment in order to maintain the normal physiology of the body. Moreover, it gives production of heat and energy.

Let us see the various types of foods in brief.  

 1) Protein:        

 It is the class of food containing nitrogen. It is derived from animal and vegetable sources and is very important for development of human cells and is essential for growth, repair and reproduction.There are many types of proteins like class A and class B proteins

Class A proteins are animal proteins which are as follows :
  •  Myosin --------  Found in meat, fish.
  • Albumin -------- Found in egg, milk.
  • Caseinogen ----------- Found in milk.
  • Globulin --------- Found in blood globulin.
  • Vitellin -------- Found in egg. 

Class B are found in  vegetables mainly and they lack the essential protein elements called amino acids. These are as follows:
  • Gluten -------- Found in wheat, bread, cereals.
  • Legumen -------- Found in peas, beans, lentils, soy bean.
  • Gelatin --------- Found in animal tissues.

Proteins are composed  of their tiny end product molecules called amino acids which are utilized by the body tissues. The daily requirement of protein is 80-100 gm of which 50 gm should be class A proteins.

2) Carbohydrates:
This is a combination of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and water which supplies heat and energy. A normal adult eats about 300 gm per day as sugars and starches.

Sugars are classified as:
  • Monosaccharides or single sugars ------ Ex: Glucose, Fructose.
  • Disaccharides or double sugars ------- Ex: Sucrose, Maltose and Lactose.
  • Polysaccharides or multiple sugars ------- Ex: Starch, Cellulose.
Starches are derived mainly from green plants, their roots, seeds, etc. as cereals (wheat, flour, rice, sago), root vegetables (potatoes); cellulose (found in stems and stalks of plants); glycogen (muscles, liver).

All complex carbohydrates are by the enzymatic actions converted into monosaccharides for proper utilization in the body.

3) Fats:

These are derived from animal and vegetable sources. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and stored in the body as fatty acids and glycerine.
Ex: Meat, milk, butter, cheese, egg, yolk, vegetables, fats, olive oil, etc.

These fats are used in the body for the production of heat and energy. A normal adult diet must contain 100 gm of fat.

4) Water:

It forms two third of the body weight. It is very essential for the well-being of the body and deprivation of water from the body is more serious than any other elemental deprivations. Water forms a large part of the tissues as it dissolves many substances and helps to maintain the normal salt concentration of the tissues regulating many important physiological processes of the body. Water is obtained from the liquids which an individual drinks, from fruits, vegetables and from the oxidation (i.e. metabolism) of food. The water balance of the body must be maintained so that the amount of water excreted in the urine be equal to the amount of water taken in.

5) Minerals and Salts:

These are various salts in the body required for normal physiological functions which form the mineral content of most foods.

The most important salts are as follows:

  • Calcium ---- It is required by the body tissues for bone formation, teeth formation, clotting of blood and other endocrinal functions. Calcium is mostly found in milk, cheese, egg-yolk, vegetables etc. 
  • Sulphur ------ Essential for the overall well-being of the tissues.
  • Iron ----------- It is needed for haemoglobin composition, oxygen distribution in the body and is derived from meat, eggs, cheese, bread, green vegetables.
  • Sodium Chloride (common salt) ------- Helps in fluid metabolism and are available from almost all foods.
  • Potassium ---------- It also helps in fluid metabolism and is available from almost all foods.
  • Phosphorus ---------- It is essential for production of muscular and nervous energy, composition of hard tissues like bone, dentine. It is found in milk, egg-yolk, fish, green vegetables.
  • Iodine ---------- This is an essential element required for balance and metabolic functions of the body, particularly of thyroid secretion. It is present in products of the sea salt, table salt, sweets, etc.

6) Vitamins:

These are the essential basic compounds required for life, health and growth and concerned with the well-being of the body metabolism.

The vitamins are classified as fat soluble i.e.(A,D,E,K) and water soluble (B,C,etc) respectively.

Fat soluble vitamins are available in fish, liver oils, milk, dairy products, liver, fatty fish. Hence, it is growth promoting and anti-infective in nature.

Let us discuss them in brief:

  • Vitamin A ---------- It plays an important role in vision, gene transcription, immune function, embryonic development and reproduction, bone metabolism, skin and cellular health, antioxidant activity, etc. It is found in leafy vegetables, carrots, fruits, cheddar cheese, broccoli,eggs, milk, butter, liver, peas, etc and their deficiency leads to night blindness and a disease of the eye called "xeropthalmia".
  • Vitamin D ---------- It plays an important role in bone health. It is found in fish liver oils, eggs, butter, fish and manufactured as natural vitamin in the skin by the exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet light. This vitamin is essential for growth of bones and teeth and promotes calcium absorption. Deficiency leads to a bony disease of the children called "rickets" and in adults called osteomalacia.
  • Vitamin E ----------- It plays an important role in antioxidant function, enzymatic activities, gene expression, neurological functions, cell signaling, etc. It is found in wheat germ oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, palm oil, avocados, mangoes, kiwi fruit, broccoli, milk, egg-yolk, green vegetables, nuts and nut oils (almond, hazlenuts,etc),etc. It's deficiency can cause myopathies, retinopathy, impairment of the immune response, ataxia, etc.
  • Vitamin K ---------- It plays an important role in bone metabolism, blood coagulation, etc. It is found in leafy green vegetables, avocado, grapes, kiwifruit, meat, eggs, soy bean, pig's liver and dairy products. It is required for the formation of prothrombin. Deficiency of it causes insufficiency of blood coagulation and hence called the anti haemorraegic factor.
  • Vitamin B Complex (Vit B1, B2, B3, B6, B12) ----------
                      vitamin B1 (Thiamine) -- Found in whole grains, pulses, pig's liver,eggs, yeast, flax and sunflower seeds, potatoes, oranges, etc.. Its deficiency causes a disease called "beri-beri".

                       vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) -- It plays an important role in energy metabolism. It is found in wheat germ, milk, liver, soybean, peas, lentils, popcorn, yogurt, fish, mushrooms, cottage cheese, almonds, etc. Deficiency of it causes cracks, fissures of the skin and a disease of the skin called "dermatitis".

                        vitamin B3 or Nicotinic acid (Niacin) -- Found in lean meat, liver, wheat germ, green vegetables. Deficiency of it causes a disease called "pellagra" and mild deficiency causes slow metabolism and decreased tolerance to cold.

                         vitamin B6 -- Found in meat, wholegrains, vegetables, nuts, bananas, etc. Deficiency of it causes dermatolic and neurologic changes. Deprivation of vitamin B6 results in impaired glucose tolerance.

                          vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) --  Plays an important role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system and for the formation of blood. It is found in fish, meat(liver), eggs, milk, barley grass, etc. It's deficiency causes fatigue, depression, poor memory, etc.
  • Vitamin H (Biotin) -------- It is a water soluble B-complex vitamin (vitamin B7). It plays an important role in gluconeogenesis. It is found in liver, kidneys, mushroom, milk, eggs, yeast, peanuts. It is essential for the health of the skin and mucous membrane. Deficiency of it causes "dermatitis", "conjunctivitis", alopecia (hair loss) and neurological symptoms.
  • Vitamin C (L-ascorbic Acid) --------- It plays a key role in wound-healing. It acts as an anti-oxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress. It is found mostly in citrus fruits and vegetables like tomato, lemon, guava, etc. It is required for healthy development of tissues, helps to raise the immunity and protection against infection. It's deficiency causes a disease of the gums of the mouth called "scurvy".
  • Vitamin P --------- It's deficiency causes bleeding under the skin.